Pakistan is an agricultural economy, contributing
21% in GDP of the country &
engaging 44% of
work force. More than two-third’s of Pakistan’s population lives
in rural areas and their livelihood continues to revolve
around agriculture and
allied activities. Like in other developing countries, poverty in Pakistan is largely
a rural phenomenon; therefore, development of agriculture will be a principal vehicle
for alleviating rural poverty. Empirical evidence suggests that higher growth in
agriculture on a sustained basis had a lasting impact on poverty reduction in Asia
in the 1970s and the 1980’s. In later decades the impact of agriculture on poverty
reduction became weaker as the Asian countries in general, and South Asia in particular,
began to witness productivity gains stagnating on account of structural issues,
including limited investment in research and extension services.
The recent global food crises, while creating difficulties for net food importing
countries, is equally providing opportunities for developing countries like Pakistan
to get their acts together and benefit from the current situation by giving more
serious attention to agriculture.
Besides, Pakistan it self needs increase produce
of its crop to feed its growing population. According to an estimate country need
273% increase in fruits, 62% in wheat, 20% in rice, 69% in maize, 38% in Sugar,
45% edible oil, and 15% cotton.
Challenges to Face:
conditions & fresh water are few of Pakistan valuable resources, which are being utilized to transform agriculture and feed the nation & support economy. In
contrary, years of traditional farming practices have resulted in the diminishing
growth in yield & production per acre, instead of investing more on inputs &
increased consumption of fertilizers.
To be more specific, limiting factor behind
stagnant agriculture growth is lack of awareness with modern farming practices &
new technological advancements. Few important factors are as follows:
Fertilization: National statistics highlight that in Pakistan fertilizer usage on
various crops is in best case misbalanced. Imbalance use of fertilizer i.e. over
focus on nitrogen and minimal use of potassic fertilizers is an important aspect
to address. This nutrient mismanagement resulted in potassic deficient soil &
- Soil Structure deterioration: Pakistani soils are alkaline in
nature, research have proved that off take of nutrient by plants from soils is not
that efficient as in neutral soils. This is why instead of our increasing phosphatic
use in not bring in the major impact in our yields. In order to get our crops utilize
available nutrients, it is important to reclaim pH of soils.
- Water Scarcity :
The Indus irrigation system, developed in the 19th century became the largest contiguous
irrigation system in the world as a result deserts bloomed and irrigated agriculture
provide the platform for the development of modern economy. Now, water situation
is extremely precarious, according to an estimate, water availability has plummeted
from about 5,000 cubic meters per capita in 1950s to less than 1,500 m3 per capita
today. Structural water stress is increasing on daily basis by its high population.
According to secure production increase requirement under prevailing condition,
30% water availability would be required.
- Modern Farming Practices: Farmer communities
are practicing their traditional ways of farming and are unaware of technological
& modern practices.
In order to streamline our agriculture, essentially following
areas need to be address:
- Soils Management.
- Nutrition Management
- Water Management
- Technological methods of farming